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The religious head of the Roman Catholic Church is known as the Pope or the bishop of Rome. He is elected by the College of Cardinals, who as a group rank next to the Pope in ecclesiastical authority. New Popes are elected on the death or retirement of a current Pope. To be elected, a new Pope must be named on two-thirds of the ballots cast, and each member of the College of Cardinals must vote. Once elected, a Pope must be asked by the dean of cardinals if he will accept the post. If he does, he is then asked to choose a name. The custom of a Pope changing his name upon election originated shortly before the year 1000.

Some interesting facts of papal history that you should know about:

According to the Catholic tradition, St. Peter was the first pope.  Peter served as pope for 34 years making him the longest reigning pope.  Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) comes in second at nearly 32 years. John Paul II went just over 26 years.

The youngest pope was elected in 955, Pope John Xii, he was 18.

The oldest popes elected were Celestine V (elected in 1294) and Pope Celestine III (elected in 1191) both were nearly 85.

The longest conclave lasted 33 months! In 1268, before Pope Gregory X was elected residents from Viterbo, north of Rome, tore the roof off the building where to cardinals were staying and only feed them bread and water in hopes make them chose a Pope quickly.

According to Vatican historian Ambrogio Piazzoni, Julius II was elected in hours in 1503.

Pope Urban VI (1378) was the last pope elected that wasn't a cardinal. He was a monk and archbishop of Bari.

There was once a pope named Hilarious.

Pope Stephen II reigned for 2 days, (March 23 – March 25, 752) making him the shortest reigning pope.

A man named Fabien, not even a candidate, was acclaimed as pope after a dove, the symbol of the Holy Spirit, landed on his shoulder.

Cardinals picking a pope in a conclave held in the Sistine Chapel is actually a relatively recent development. In the early centuries of the church, the pope, who is the Bishop of Rome, was elected in various ways, though usually by the clergy of the diocese, a choice that was then affirmed (or rejected) by the people.

For several centuries, the Roman aristocracy and secular rulers often controlled the process. The College of Cardinals wasn't given the principal right to elect the pope until 1059.

In 1179, the College of Cardinals was given the exclusive right to choose a new pope, and a two-thirds majority was set as the threshold for a winning vote (later changed to two-thirds plus one).

Until modern times, a pope could also be elected by a compromise among the cardinals or by "acclamation," which means that all of the cardinals would have to unanimously declare their support for a single candidate. Now a candidate must win a secret ballot, no matter how long it takes.

At times there have been as few as a dozen cardinals voting in a conclave. Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) set the top number at 70, and that was not changed until the 20th century when the ceiling was gradually raised to 120, though John Paul II often surpassed that limit.

In 1970, Pope Paul VI ruled that cardinals who were more than 80 years old when a pope died could not take part in a conclave; there are a total of 207 living cardinals, but 90 of them are more than 80 and cannot vote. Two others have said they cannot take part, leaving 115 electors.

The longest interregnum between popes lasted two years and nine months, between 1268 and 1271. During that time, the cardinals meeting in Viterbo, a town outside Rome, could not agree on a candidate until they were forced to do so by the king of France and other rulers.

After the Viterbo debacle, Pope Gregory X in 1274 established what we know today as the conclave (Latin for "with a key"), in which the cardinals are essentially locked inside a room and in olden times deprived of meals until they settle on a successor.

In modern times, conclaves usually last less than a week, and often no more than a day or two. The last long conclave was in 1740 and lasted six months.

Ballots have been burned since the 1417 conclave, but the practice of using white smoke created by adding dry straw to the ballots, or, more recently, chemicals, to signal the election of a pope was first recorded in 1914. Before that, church bells were rung and cannons fired to signal the election of a pope.

Technically, any baptized male can be elected pope, but the last time the cardinals reached outside their ranks was in 1378, when they chose Urban VI.

The last pope who was not a priest when elected was Leo X (1513-1521). He had to be ordained before taking office.

A pope must also be a bishop. The last cardinal elected pope who was not a bishop was Bartolomeo Cappellari, a monk who became Pope Gregory XVI in 1831. He was made a bishop four days after his election and then became pope.

The first pope to change his name: a fellow named Mercury, elected in 533, didn't think it was a good idea to be named after a Roman god so he became John II.

The last pope to keep his name: Marcello Cervini, elected in 1555, called himself Marcellus II.

Two popes named Peter changed their name out of respect for the first pope: John XIV (983-84) and Sergius IV (1009-12).

There have been three father-son combinations, the last when Sergius III (904-911) was later followed by his illegitimate son, John XI (931-35).

The first pope to live in the Vatican: Nicholas III (1277-80).

Why do popes wear white? It started when a Dominican priest, an order known for its distinctive white habit, was elected Innocent V in 1276 and kept his old clothes. The white cassock became standard for all popes after another Dominican, Pius V, was chosen in 1566.

Three popes were under the age of 25. The last was Pope Gregory V, who was 24 when elected in 996.
The shortest papacy belongs to Urban VII, who died after just 12 days in office, in 1590. John Paul I died in 1978 after 33 days.

The first and only pope to have ordered the murder of his predecessor was Sergius III (904-11), who had Leo V killed.

If you become pope, you have a 1-in-3 chance of becoming a saint. Out of 265 popes, 81 are saints, though most pope-saints came in the early centuries of the church, when many were martyrs, which is a fast-track to canonization.

The last pope to be recognized as a martyr: Martin I (649-54), he died in exile in
Crimea, imprisoned in brutal conditions.

Some want the late John Paul II to be known as "John Paul the Great." Three other popes in history have been given that honorific: Leo I (440-61), Gregory I (590-604) and Nicholas I (858-67).

There have been 266 individuals who have validly been considered to be the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Those who were given Sainthood are indicated in this listing.

The following list includes all the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, beginning with St. Peter the Apostle, who is traditionally considered to be the first Pope because of his appointment by Jesus and his role in organizing the Church. The list gives the names of the Popes, the years of their papacies, and the original names of those who changed their names upon election.




Common English Name

Regnal Latin Name

Personal Name

Place of Birth

Years as Pope


1st Century
1 30 - 67 Saint Peter Petru, Head of the Church Simon Peter Bethsaida Galilee 37 years Peter was one of Jesus' apostles, and he was martyred.  He was executed by crucifixion upside-down.
2 67 - 76/79 ? Saint Linus Linus, Episcopus Romanus Linus Tuscany, Italy 9 years He was the first Bishop after Peter. He was martyred.
3 76/79 ? - 88 Saint Anacletus Anacletus, Episcopus Romanus Anacletus Greece 9 years He structured the Church in Rome into many parishes. Traditions say he was once a slave. He was martyred.
4 88 -101 Saint Clement I Clemens, Episcopus Romanus Clement Rome 13 years He was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown out to sea.
5 101 - 107 Saint Evaristus Evaristus, Episcopus Romanus Aristus
Greece 6 years He appointed seven deacons for the city. He was martyred.
2nd Century
6 107 - 115 Saint Alexander Alexander, Episcopus Romanus Alexander Rome 8 years He was tortured and later beheaded in Rome.
7 115 - 125 Saint
Sixtus I
Xystus, Episcopus Romanus Sixtus Rome or Greece 10 years He was the first Pope that was the son of a priest.  He was martyred.
8 125 - 138 Saint Telesphorus Telesphorus, Episcopus Romanus Telesphorus Greece 13 years He instituted Christmas Midnight Mass, Easter on Sundays, and Lent before Easter.
9 138 - 140 Saint Hyginus Hyginus, Episcopus Romanus Hyginus Greece 2 years He instituted godparents at Baptism, and decreed that all churches be consecrated. He was martyred.
10 140 - 155 Saint Pius I Pius, Episcopus Romanus Vitali Aquileia, Friuli, Italy 15 years He is accredited for choosing the date for the Easter, (the first Sunday after the first full moon of March). He was Martyred by the sword.
11 155 - 166 Saint Anicetus Anicetus, Episcopus Romanus Anicetus Emesa, Syria 11 years He was the first Pope to condemn heresy. He was martyred.
12 166 - 174 Saint Soter Soterius, Episcopus Romanus Soter Fondi, Latium 12 years He declared that marriages could only be validated by a priest. He was martyred.
13 174 - 189 Saint Eleutherus Eleutherius, Episcopus Romanus Eleutherus Nicopoli, Epyrus 15 years During the violent persecution at Lyons, in 177, local confessors wrote to him from their prison. He was martyred.
14 189 - 199 Saint
Victor I
Victor, Episcopus Romanus Victor Northern Africa 10 years He ordered that the Mass of the church be changed from Greek to Latin.
15 199 - 217 Saint Zephyrin Zephyrinus, Episcopus Romanus Zephyrin Rome 18 years In his term as Pope, the first Schism in the history of the Christian Church occurred.
3rd Century
16 217 - 222 Saint Callixtus I Callistus,
Episcopus Romanus
Callixtus Rome 5 years It is reported that he had been lynched to death by an angry mob.
17 222 - 230 Saint Urban Urbanus, Episcopus Romanus Urban Rome 8 years His pontificate was during a peaceful time for Christians. He was martyred.
18 7/21/230 - 9/28/235 Saint Pontian Pontianus, Episcopus Romanus Pontian Rome 5 years He was the first Pope with firm dates of office and  the first pope to resign. He was put in prison and died due to the harsh conditions while there.
19 11/21/235 - 01/03/236 Saint Anterus Anterus,Episcopus Romanus Anterus Greece 44 days He was only Pope for several weeks. He was a Greek who hoped to collect the acts of the martyrs into a central source.
20 01/10 236 - 01/20/250 Saint Fabian Fabianus, Episcopus Romanus Fabian Rome 14 years Leaders were looking for a new Pope. A dove landed on Fabian's head. Claiming a miracle, he was pronounced Pope.
21 03/06/251 - 06//22/253 Saint Cornelius Cornelius, Episcopus Romanus Cornelius Rome 2 years He was exiled where he later died a martyr, through extreme hardship.
22 06/25/253 - 03/05/254 Saint Lucius Lucius, Episcopus Romanus Lucius Rome 9 months He fled during a period of persecution, and may have been a martyr.
23 05/12/254 - 08/02/257 Saint Stephen I Stephanus, Episcopus Romanus Stephen Greece 3 years He was responsible for ordering priests to wear sacred vestments when saying Mass. He was martyred
24 08/30/257 - 08/06/258 Saint
Sixtus II
Dionysius, Episcopus Romanus Sixtus Greece 11 months The emperor in 258 issued a cruel edict ordering bishops, priests, deacons to be put to death. He was one of the first  victims and was beheaded.
25 07/22/259 - 12/26/268 Saint Dionysius Dionysius, Episcopus Romanus Dionysius Greece 9 years Due to the persecutions in Rome there was no Bishop of Rome for almost a year after he died.
26 01/05/269 - 12/30/274 Saint
Felix I
Felix, Episcopus Romanus Felix Rome 5 years He was the author of an important dogmatic letter on the Unity of Christ's Person. He was martyred.
27 01/04/275 - 12/07/283 Saint Eutychian Eutychianus, Episcopus Romanus Eutychian Etruria
8 years Tradition claims that he buried 324 martyrs with his own hands.
28 12/17/283 - 04/22/296 Saint Caius Caius, Episcopus Romanus Gaius Dalmatia
12 years His tomb was discovered in the catacombs and in it the ring with which he used to seal his letters.
29 06/30/296 - 04/01/304 Saint Marcellinus Marcellinus, Episcopus Romanus Marcellinus Rome 7 years He was beheaded, and his body was left in the street for 26 days as a warning to other Christians.
4th Century
30 308 - 309 Saint Marcellus Marcellus, Episcopus Romanus Marcellus Rome 1 year He was seized in 309 for the bloodshed from his public penance orders, & sent into exile. He died in prison.
31 309 - 310 Saint Eusebius Eusebius, Episcopus Romanus Eusebius Cassano Ionico
1 year Emperor Maxentius had him arrested and exiled to Sicily.
32 07/02/311 - 01/11/314 Saint Miltiades

Miltiades, Episcopus Romanus Miltiades Africa 3 years He was the first Pope after the end of the persecution of Christians.
33 01/31/314 - 12/31/335 Saint Sylvester I Silvester, Episcopus Romanus Sylvester Rome 21 years He is credited for Roman Catholicism being the official religion, and he was the head Bishop of the Universal Church.
34 01/18/336 - 10/07/336 Saint Mark Marcus, Episcopus Romanus Mark Rome 10 months He started early lists of Bishops and martyrs known as "Depositio episcoporum" and "Depositio martyrum".
35 02/06/337 - 04/12/352 Saint Julius Ilius, Episcopus Romanus Julius Rome 15 years He started the archives of the Roman Church, where all decrees and acts are to be kept.
36 05/17/352 - 09/24/366 Liberius Liberius, Episcopus Romanus Liberius

Rome 14 years He was the first  Pope not to be canonized. He ordered that the birth of Christ be celebrated on December 25th.
37 10/01/366 - 12/11/384 Saint Damasus Damasus, Episcopus Romanus Damasus Portugal 18 years His election was rejected by the supporters of Liberius. The result was a bloody feud until the Emperor intervened.
38 12/11/384 - 11/26/399 Saint Siricius Papa Siricius, Episcopus Romanus Siricius Rome 14 years He was the first Bishop of Rome to employ the title "Papa" "Pope". He was the author of two decrees for clerical celibacy.
39 11/27/399 - 12/19/401 Saint Anastasius Papa Anastasius, Episcopus Romanus Anastasius Rome 2 years Jerome speaks of him as a man of great holiness who was rich in his poverty.
5th Century
40 12/22/401 - 03/12/417 Saint Innocent Papa Innocentius, Episcopus Romanus Innocent Albano
15 years He was the first Pope whose father was a Pope, Pope Anastasius I.
41 03/18/417 - 12/26/418 Saint Zosimus Papa Zosimus, Episcopus Romanus Zosimus Greece 9 months He instituted the dedication of Easter candles in the country parishes
42 12/28/418 - 09/04/422 Saint Boniface Papa Bonifacius, Episcopus Romanus Boniface Rome 3 years He was a Roman, and the son of a priest, Jocundus.
43 09/10/422 - 07/27/432 Saint Celestine Papa Coelestinus, Episcopus Romanus Celestine Rome 9 years He was credited for the worship of Mary being adopted. He first introduced the title of "Pope" as the head of the Church.
44 07/31/432 - 03/440 Saint Sixtus Papa Xystus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Sixtus Rome 8 years He decreed that Mary is to be considered divine.
45 09/29/440 - 11/10/461 Leo
the Great
Papa Leo Magnus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Rome 21 years He was the first Pope to be given the title Pontifex Maximus. He started the practice of private confessions.
46 11/19/461 - 02/29/468 Saint Hilarius Papa Hilarius, Episcopus Romanus Hilarius Sardinia 6 years He built several churches and other buildings in Rome, and was canonized a saint after his death.
47 03/03/468 - 03/10/483 Saint Simplicius Papa Simplicius, Episcopus Romanus Simplicius Tivoli, Italy 15 years He was credited for the construction of a church named in memory of the Virgin and martyr St. Bibiana
48 03/13/483 - 03/01/492 Saint Felix II Papa Felix Tertius (Secundus), Episcopus Romanus Felix Rome 8 years He was married and had at least 2 sons who were all buried with him in St. Paul's Basilica. One of his sons was the father of Gregory the Great.
49 03/01/492 - 11/21/496 Saint Gelasius Papa Gelasius, Episcopus Romanus Gelasius Africa 4 years He was the first Pope to use the title, Vicar of Christ. He was the most prolific writer of the early Popes.
50 11/24/496 - 11/19/498 Anastasius II Papa Anastasius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Anastasius Rome 1 year He is the second Pope since Peter not to be recognized as a saint.
51 11/22/498 - 07/19/514 Saint Symmachus Papa Symmachus, Episcopus Romanus Symmachus Sardinia 15 years He built a Church of Saint Andrew near Saint Peter's and a basilica.
6th Century
52 07/20/514 - 07/19/523 Saint Hormisdas Papa Hormisdus, Episcopus Romanus Hormisdas Southern Latium, Italy 8 years He was married before being ordained. He is the father of Pope Silverius.
53 08/13 523 - 05/18/526 Saint John I Papa Ioannes, Episcopus Romanus John Tuscany 2 years He was imprisoned at Ravenna, where he died of neglect and ill treatment.
54 07/13/526 - 09/22/530 Saint Felix III Papa Felix Quartus(Tertius), Episcopus Romanus Felix Samnium 4 years He was elected after a gap of nearly two months after the death of John I.
55 09/22/530 - 10/17/532 Boniface II Papa Bonifacius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Boniface Rome 2 years He was esteemed for his charity, particularly towards the suffering poor of Rome during a year of famine.
56 01/02/533 - 05/08/535 John II Papa Ioannes Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Mercurius Rome 2 years He was the first Pope to choose to use a new name when ordained.
57 05/13/535 - 04/22/536 Saint Agapetus Papa Agapetus, Episcopus Romanus Agapetus Rome 11 months He was an Archdeacon prior to his election as Pope.
58 06/01/536 - 11/11/537 Saint Silverius Papa Silverius, Episcopus Romanus Silverius Frosinone, Italy
17 months He was the second Pope whose father was also a Pope, Hormisdas. He was a sub-deacon when he was elected Pope. He was put in prison where he died.
59 03/29/537 - 06/07/555 Vigilius Papa Pelagius, Episcopus Romanus Vigilius Rome 5 years He entered the service of the Roman Church and was ordained a deacon in 531
60 04/16/56 - 03/04/561 Pelagius I Papa Pelagius, Episcopus Romanus Pelagius Rome 5 years He poured out his own fortune to help the poor and hungry people.
61 07/17/561 - 07/13/574 John III Papa Ioannes Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Catelinus Rome 12 years His papacy fell during the stormy times of the Lombard invasion and most of the records of his reign have been destroyed.
62 06/02/575 - 07/30/579 Benedict I Papa Benedictus, Episcopus Romanus Benedictus Rome 4 years There was a vacancy of nearly eleven months between the death of Pope John III and the Benedict's election.
63 11/26/579 - 02/07/590 Pelagius II Papa Pelagius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Pelagius Rome 10 years He fell victim to the plague that devastated Rome at the end of 589.
64 09/03/590 - 03/12/604 Saint Gregory The Great

Papa Gregorius Magnus, Episcopus Romanus Gregorius Rome 13 years He is the first to formally employ the titles "Servus servorum Dei" and "Pontifex Maximus".
7th Century
65 09/13/604 - 02/22/606 Saint Sabinian Papa Sabinianus, Episcopus Romanus Sabinian Blera 17 months He is attributed to the introduction of the custom of ringing bells at the celebration of the Eucharist.
66 02/19/607 - 11/12/607 Boniface III Papa Bonifacius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus George Hiltion Rome 9 months He established that no papal successor would be chosen until three days after a Pope's burial.
67 08/25/608 - 05/08/615 Saint Boniface Papa Bonifacius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Boniface Marsi 6 years He is the first Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor.
68 10/19/615 - 11/08/618 Adeodatus I Papa Adeodatus,
or Papa Deusdedit Episcopus Romanus
Deusdedit, son of Stephen Rome 3 years He was the first Pope to use lead seals on Papal documents, which came to be called Papal Bulls
69 12/23/619 - 10/25/625 Boniface V Papa Bonifacius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Boniface Naples 5 years He did much for the Christianizing of England
70 10/27/625 - 10/12/638 Honorius I Papa Honorius, Episcopus Romanus Honorius Capua 2 years The festival of the Elevation of the Cross is said to have been instituted during the pontificate of Honorius.
71 10/638 - 08/02/640 Severinus Papa Severinus, Episcopus Romanus Severinus Rome 1 year His election was in October 638, but he was not installed until May 28, 640, but died soon afterwards.
72 12/24/640 - 10/12/642 John IV Papa Ioannes Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Zadar, Dalmatia, now Croatia 2 years At the time of his election he was Archdeacon of the Roman Church
73 11/24/642 - 05/14/649 Theodore I Papa Theodorus, Episcopus Romanus Theodore Palestine 6 years He was the son of a Bishop.
74 07/649 - 09/16/655 Saint Martin Papa Martinus, Episcopus Romanus Martin Umbria, Italy
6 years He was seized and suffered an exhausting imprisonment & many public indignities. He died 5 months later.
75 08/10/654 - 06/02/657 Saint Eugene Papa Eugenius, Episcopus Romanus Eugene Rome 2 years He was known for his holiness, gentleness, and charity. He had been a cleric and held various positions within the Church
76 07/30/657 - 01/27/672 Saint Vitalian Papa Vitalianus, Episcopus Romanus Vitalian Segni in Campagna
14 years The introduction of church organ music is traditionally believed to date from the time of Vitalian's Papacy.
77 04/11/672 - 06/17/676 Adeodatus II, O.S.B. Papa Adeodatus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Adeodatus Rome 4 years He is known for his generosity, especially when it came to the poor and to pilgrims.
78 06/27/678 - 01/10/681 Donus Papa Donus, Episcopus Romanus Donus Rome 3 years He paved the court of St. Peter's Basilica & the atrium in front of St. Peter's with great blocks of white marble.
79 06/27/678 - 01/10/681 Saint Agatho Papa Agatho, Episcopus Romanus Agatho Sicily 2 years Born in Sicily of wealthy parents, he gave away his inheritance after their death and retired to a monastery.
80 12/681 - 07/03/683 Saint Leo Papa Leo Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Sicily

2 years He was not consecrated till after a year and seven months. Was an eloquent preacher.
81 06/26/683 - 05/08/685 Saint Benedict Papa Benedictus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Benedict Rome 2 years Restorations of numerous churches in Rome are ascribed to the less than a year's pontificate of Benedict II.
82 07/12/685 - 08/02/686 John V Papa Ioannes Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Syria 1 year After a pontificate of little more than a year which he spent chiefly in bed he died.
83 10/21/686 - 09/22/687 Conon Papa Conon, Episcopus Romanus Conon Rome 1 year Elderly and sickly, he died after less than 1 year and left in his will a large bequest to the clergy.
84 12/15/687 - 10/08/701 Saint Sergius Papa Sergius, Episcopus Romanus Sergius Sicily 13 years He Baptized Caedwalla, King of the West Saxons, England
8th Century
85 10/30/701 - 01/11/705 John VI Papa Ioannes Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Greece 3 years He succeeded to the Papal chair two months after the death of Sergius I.
86 03/705 - 10/18/707 John VII Papa Ioannes Septumus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Greece 2 years He is the second Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor. He built many monuments.
87 01/15/708 - 02/04/708 Sisinnius Papa Sisinnius, Episcopus Romanus Sisinnius Syria 20 days He was afflicted with gout and could not even feed himself, but it is said that he had a strong character and wanted to do good.
88 03/25/708 - 04/09/715 Constantine Papa Constantinus, Episcopus Romanus Constantinus Syria 7 years He instituted the custom of kissing the Pope's feet.

89 05/19/715 - 02/11/731 Saint Gregory Papa Gregorius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gregorius Rome 15 years When Emperor ordered to destroy the icon of Christ, an angry crowd attacked. As a result, he lead a revolt.
90 03/18/731 - 11/28/741 Gregory III Papa Gregorius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Gregorius Syria 10 years He held a synod and ordered that he would excommunicate anyone who destroys images of Christ, Mary, the saints or Apostles.
91 12/03/741 - 03/14/752 Saint Zachary Papa Zacharias, Episcopus Romanus Zacharias son of Polichronius Greece 10 years He was a kind Pope and very good to the poor and the sick.
  03/23/752 - 03/26/752

(never consecrated)

(Pope-Elect Stephen II) Papa Scelga Stephanus Stephen Rome 3 days He died 3 days after election and was never consecrated. The Vatican added him to the list in the 16th century, but he was removed 1961.
92 03/26/752 - 04/26/757 Stephen II Papa Stephanus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Stephen Rome 5 years He became the first Pope to cross the Alps.
93 05/29/757 - 06/28/767 Saint Paul Papa Paulus, Episcopus Romanus Paul Rome 10 years He was the first Pope to succeed his brother, Pope Stephen II.
94 08/01/767 - 01/24/772 Stephen III Papa Stephanus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Stephanus Sicily
4 years He is known to history as the first Pope-king, he was better known to the Roman poor for his great charity.
95 02/01/772 - 12/26/795 Adrian I Papa Hadrianus, Episcopus Romanus Hadrian Rome 23 years He is the oldest Pope elected and longest pope since Peter, until Pius VI. Only three more popes have reigned longer.
96 12/26/795 - 06/12/816 Saint Leo III Papa Leo Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Leo Rome 20 years Pope Leo III is best known for crowning Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor.
9th Century
97 06/12/816 - 01/24/817 Stephen V Papa Stephanus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Stephanus Rome 7 months He crowned and anointed Louis the Pious, successor of Charlemagne.
98 01/25/817 - 02/11/824 Saint Paschal Papa Paschalis, Episcopus Romanus Pascale Massimi, son of Bonosus Rome 7 years He is called the Pope with the squared halo of the living peoples, and is shown presenting a model of the basilica to Christ.
99 05/08/824 - 08/ 827 Eugene II Papa Eugenius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Eugene Rome 3 years He is described as simple, humble, learned, eloquent  and generous. He loved peace and doing what was pleasing to God.
100 08/827 - 09/827 Valentine Papa Valentinus, Episcopus Romanus Valentinus Rome 1 month He was chosen unanimously, which was no small feat. He died after 30 or 40 days.
101 01/827 - 01/844 Gregory IV Papa Gregorius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Gregorius Rome 17 years He contributed to the architectural development of Rome and promoted the celebration of The Feast of All Saints.
102 01/844 - 01/07/847 Sergius II Papa Sergius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Sergius Rome 3 years He was possibly poisoned & died while negotiating a dispute between Patriarchs.
103 01/847 - 07/17/855 Saint Leo IV Papa Leo Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Rome 8 years He is the first Pope to carry a jewel-encrusted cross before him, and began the use of "Holy Water".
104 04/07/855 - 04/07/858 Benedict III Papa Benedictus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Benedict Rome 3 years He had a reputation for learning and piety.
105 04/24/858 - 11/13/867 Saint Nicholas The Great

Papa Nicolaus Magnus Episcopus Romanus Nicholas Rome 9 years He rebuilt and endowed several churches, and constantly sought to encourage religious life.
106 12/14/867 - 12/14/872 Adrian II Papa Hadrianus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Hadrian

Rome 5 years He was the last married Pope. He had a wife and daughter. They were taken away and killed by the brother of the church's librarian.
107 12/14/872 - 12/16/882 John VIII Papa Ioannes Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Rome 10 years He is one of the ablest Popes of the ninth century and the last bright spot on the Papacy until Leo IX two centuries later.
108 12/16/882 - 05/15/884 Marinus I

Papa Marinus, Episcopus Romanus Marinus Gallese
1 year He was a long time servant of the Papal throne, having been employed by his 3 predecessors.
109 05/17/884 - 09/885 Saint Adrian Papa Hadrianus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Hadrian Rome 1 year He died in September, 885, at Modena, on a journey to what is now modern Germany.
110 09/14/885 - 09/891 Stephen V Papa Stephanus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Stephanus Rome 6 years The Papal treasury was empty, so he had to use his father's wealth to relieve the poor due to the famine caused by a drought.
111 09/19/891 - 04/04/896 Formosus Papa Formosus, Episcopus Romanus Formosus Ostia 4 years He was forced to crown the duke of Spoleto, and his son. They became powerful. His pontificate was declared invalid but was re-validated.
112 04/04/896 - 04/19/896 Boniface V Papa Bonifacius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Boniface Rome 15 days After a Pontificate of fifteen days, he is said by some to have died of the gout.
113 05/22/896 - 08/897 Stephen VI Papa Stephanus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Stephanus

Rome 3 months He was imprisoned and died. It is said the someone strangled him.
114 08/897 - 11/897 Romanus Papa Romanus, Episcopus Romanus Romanus

Rome 3 months He died four months after becoming Pope.
115 12/897 -01/898

Theodore II Papa Theodorus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Theodorus Rome 20 days He was Pope for twenty days during December 897 before he died.
116 01/898 - 01/900 John IX, O.S.B. Papa Ioannes Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Tivoli, Italy 2 years Even though he was only Pope for a short time, his accomplishments are amazing.
117 01/900 - 07/903 Benedict IV Papa Benedictus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Benedictus Rome 3 years His generosity and zeal for the public good are commended by the contemporary historians who gave him the title of "Great".
10th Century
118 07/903 - 09/903 Leo V

Papa Leo Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Ardea 2 months This was the darkest period of Papal history. He was deposed and murdered by  strangling.
119 01/29/904 - 04/14/911 Sergius III Papa Sergius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Sergius Rome 7 years He is the first Pope to be depicted wearing the triple-crowned Papal tiara.
120 04/911 - 06/913 Anastasius III Papa Anastasius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Anastasius Rome 2 years He was allegedly the illegitimate son of his predecessor Pope Sergius III.
121 07/913 - 03/914 Lando Papa Lando, Episcopus Romanus Lando Sabina, Italy 8 months He was the last Pope to use a papal name which had not been previously used until Pope John Paul I did so in 1978.
122 03/914 - 05/928 John X Papa Ioannes Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Ioannes Romagna, Italy 14 years Marozia, daughter of Theodora, had him smothered to death in order to appoint Pope Leo VI.
123 05/928 - 12/928 Leo VI Papa Leo Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Rome 7 months He reigned a little over seven months. He was assassinated by Marozia.
124 12/928 - 02/931 Stephen VII Papa Stephanus Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Stephanus Rome 2 years Sources claimed that he had been smothered while in prison and that he was assassinated.
125 03/931 - 12/935 John XI Papa Ioannes Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Johannes Rome 4 years He was appointed Pope at a young age, by his mother Marozia. When she died he was thrown in prison and beaten where he died.
126 01/03/936 - 07/13/939 Leo VII, O.S.B. Papa Leo Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Rome 3 years As Pope, Leo VII reigned for only three years.
127 07/14/939 - 10/942 Stephen VIII Papa Stephanus Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Stephanus Germany 3 years He was a native of Germany and was Pope for 3 years.
128 10/942 - 05/946 Marinus II Papa Marinus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Marinus Rome 3 years He left almost nothing in the way of official records or acts and not much is known about him personally or professionally.
129 05/10/946 - 12/955 Agapetus II Papa Agapetus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Agapetus Rome 9 years He was a man of some force of character, and attempted to put a stop to the corrupt rulers.
130 12/16/955 - 05/14/964 John XII Papa Ioannes Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Octavian Rome 8 years He was the only teenager elected pope. His picking the apostolic name of John was the second example of taking a regal name.
131 05/22/964 - 06/23/964 Leo VIII Papa Leo Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Leo Rome 1 month His family was well known and he himself gave his name to various streets in the neighborhood of his home.
132 07/964 - 03/01/965 Benedict V Papa Benedictus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Benedictus Rome 7 months He was forced to resign and was carried off to Hamburg. There he became a deacon, dying in 966.
133 10/01/965 - 09/16/972 John XIII Papa Ioannes Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Crescenzi Rome 6 years He was active in organizing and extending the Church hierarchy.
134 01/19/973 - 06/974 Benedict VI Papa Benedictus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Benedictus Rome 2 years After a period of less than two years, he was strangled.
135 10/974 - 07/10/983 Benedict VII Papa Benedictus Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Benedictus Rome 8 years He governed Rome quietly for nearly nine years, a somewhat rare thing in those days.
136 12/983 - 08/20/984 John XIV Papa Ioannes Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Campanora Pavia 8 months He was the first Pope to canonize a saint. He was placed in prison, where he died either by starvation or poison.
137 08/985 - 03/996 John XVI Papa Ioannes Quintus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus John Rome 10 years He died of a fever early in March 996.
138 05/03/996 - 02/18/999 Gregory V Papa Gregorius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Bruno of Carinthia Rome 2 years He was the first German Pope and was only 24 years of age. He died suddenly, and not without suspicion of foul play.
139 04/02/999 - 05/12/1003 Sylvester II Papa Silvester Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gerbert d'Aurillac Auvergne region of France 4 years He was the first French Pope. He was a prolific scholar & teacher. He introduced Arabic knowledge of mathematics, and astronomy.
11th Century
140 06/1003 - 12/1003 John XVII Papa Ioannes Septimus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Siccone Rome 6 months Before entering the priesthood, he had been married and had three sons who also became Bishops.
141 12/25/1003 - 07/1009 John XVIII Papa Ioannes Duodevicesimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Fasano; Phasianus Rome 5 years He abdicated and, according to one catalog of Popes, retired to a monastery, where he died shortly afterwards
142 07/31/1009 - 05/12/1012 Sergius IV  

Papa Sergius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Boccapecora Rome 2 years He is attributed to include measures to relieve famine in the city of Rome.
143 05/18/1012 - 04/09/1024 Benedict VIII Papa Benedictus Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus II, Conti di Tusculum Rome 11 years He was of the noble family of the counts of Tusculum.
144 04/1024 - 10/20/1032 John XIX Papa Sergius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Boccapecora Rome 2 years He was said to be killed by a mob of angry peasants.
145 1032 - 1044 Benedict IX Papa Benedictus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome 12 years 1st Term. He was one of the youngest Popes and was the only man ever to have sold the papacy. He was Pope 3 times.
146 01/1045 - 02/1045 Sylvester III Papa Silvester Tertius, Episcopus Romanus John, Bishop of Sabina Rome 1 month Though some consider him to have been an antipope, Sylvester III continues to be listed as an official Pope
147 1045 -          1046 Benedict IX Papa Benedictus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome 1 year 2ndTerm. He was one of the youngest Popes and was the only man ever to have sold the papacy. He was Pope 3 times.
148 04/1045 - 12/20/1046 Gregory VI Papa Gregorius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Johannes Gratianus Rome 6 months He purchased the Papacy from Benedict IX.
149 12/24/1046 - 10/09/1047 Clement II Papa Clemens Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Suidger Hornburg, Lower Saxony, Germany 10 months A recent toxicology exam of his remains confirmed centuries old rumors that he had been poisoned.
150 11/1047 - 07/1048 Benedict IX Papa Benedictus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome 8 months 3rd Term. He was one of the youngest Popes and was the only man ever to have sold the papacy. He was Pope 3 times.
151 07/17/1048 - 08/09/1048 Damasus II Papa Damasus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Poppo Tirol 1 month He was in office only 23 days. Likely scenario is that he died of malaria.
152 02/12/1049 - 04/19/1054 Saint Leo IX Papa Leo Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg Eguisheim, Upper Alsace, now in France, but then firmly German 5 years He is widely considered the most historically significant German Pope of the Middle Ages.
153 04/13/1055 - 07/28/1057 Victor II Papa Victor Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg Germany 2 years He reinforced condemnation of clerical marriage.
154 08/02/1057 - 03/29/1058 Stephen IX, O.S.B. Papa Stephanus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Frederic de Lorraine; Frederick of Lorraine Florence, Italy 7 months He was known for enforcing the policies of the Gregorian Reform as to clerical celibacy.
155 12/06/1058 - 07/27/1061 Nicholas II Papa Nicolaus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gérard de Bourgogne; Gerard of Burgundy Italy 2 years He was attributed to the electoral reform that Popes were to be selected by the Cardinals, in assembly at Rome.
156 09/30/1061 - 04/21/1073 Alexander II Papa Alexander Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Anselmo da Baggio Milan, Italy 11 years He enforce the celibacy of the clergy. Oversaw the suppression of the 'Alleluia' during the Latin Church's Lenten celebration.
157 04/22/1073 - 05/25/1085 Saint Gregory VII

Papa Gregorius Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Hildebrand Soana, Tuscany, Italy 12 years He is hailed as one of the greatest of the Roman Pontiffs after his reforms proved successful.
158 05/24/1086 - 09/16/1087 Blessed Victor III Papa Victor Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Desiderio; Desiderius; Dauferius Southern Italy 1 year He rebuilt convents and churches and  established schools of art. He was beatified but he has not been canonized yet.
159 03/12/1088 - 07/29/1099 Blessed Urban Papa Urbanus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Odo of Lagery France 11 years He is most known for starting the First Crusade (1095–99) and setting up the modern day Roman Curia, to  run the Church.
160 08/13/1099 - 01/21/1118 Paschal II, O.S.B. Papa Paschalis Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Raniero Romagna, Italy 18 years He is the first Bishop of America  appointed nearly four centuries before Columbus' first voyage.
12th Century
161 01/24/1118 - 01/28/1119 Gelasius II, O.S.B. Papa Gelasius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Coniulo Gaeta, Latium, Italy 1 year He was taken to Rome by Pope Urban II and made papal sub-deacon and cardinal deacon.
162 02/02/1119 - 12/13/1124 Callixtus II Papa Callistus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Guido, Comte de Bourgogne France 5 years He died at a stronghold near Salerno.
163 12/15/1124 - 02/13/1130 Honorius II 

Papa Honorius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Lamberto Bologna, Italy 5 years His successful career from humble beginnings is a mark of his outstanding abilities.
164 02/14/1130 - 09/24/1143 Innocent II

Papa Innocentius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gregorio Papareschi Rome 13 years As he lay dying, the Commune of Rome, to resist Papal power, officially reinstated the Roman Senate.
165 03/12/1144 - 02/15/1145 Celestine II Papa Coelestinus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Guido Città di Castello, Umbria, Italy 1 month He provided absolution to King Louis VII of France.
166 02/15/1145 - 08/08/1153 Lucius II

Papa Lucius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gerardo Caccianemici dal Orso Bologn, Italy 8 years He was seriously injured during a battle by a thrown stone and died a few days later from his injuries.
167 02/15/1145 - 07/08/1153 Blessed Eugene Papa Eugenius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Bernardo da Pisa Pisa, Tuscany, Italy 8 years His tomb soon acquired an extraordinary fame for miraculous cures.
168 07/08/1153- 12/03/1154 Anastasius IV

Papa Anastasius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Corrado Demetri della Suburra Rome 1 year During his short Pontificate he played the part of a peacemaker.
169 12/04/1154 - 09/01/1159 Adrian IV

Papa Hadrianus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Nicholas Breakspear England 4 years He is the only Englishman who has occupied the Papal chair. He reputedly died choking on a fly in his wine.
170 09/07/1159 - 08/30/1181 Alexander III

Papa Alexander Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Rolando Siena, Tuscany, Italy 21 years He was the first Pope known to have to paid direct attention to missionary activities east of the Baltic Sea.
171 09/01/1181 - 11/25/1185

Lucius III

Papa Lucius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Ubaldo Lucca, Tuscany, Italy 4 years After being elected, he lived in Rome for 1 year. Problems in the city caused him to pass the rest of his term in exile.
172 11/25/1185 - 10/19/1187 Urban III


Papa Urbanus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Uberto Crivelli Milan, Italy 2 years According to legend, he died of grief upon hearing news of the Crusader defeat in July 1187 at the Battle of Hattin.
173 10/21/1187 - 12/17/1187 Gregory VIII

Papa Gregorius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Alberto di Morra Benevento, Campania, Italy 2 months He was named Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. He died in Pisa of a fever, after being Pope for only 57 days.
174 12/19/1187 - 03/27/1191 Clement III

Papa Clemens Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Paolo Scolari Rome 3 years He succeeded in allaying the conflict which had existed for half a century between the Popes and the citizens of Rome.
175 03/30/1191 - 01/08/1198 Celestine III

Papa Coelestinus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Giacinto Bobone Rome 6 years He was the first Pope of the House of the Orsini, and his policy was marked by mildness and indecision.
176 01/08/1198 - 07/16/1216 Innocent III

Papa Innocentius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Lothario dei Conti di Segni Gavignano, Latium, Italy 18 years He played a major role in the shaping of canon law and became one of the greatest jurists. He was the first Pope to have a personal Papal Coat of Arms.
13th Century
177 07/18/1216 - 03/18/1227 Honorius III

Papa Honorius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Cencio Rome 10 years His extreme kindness had endeared him to the hearts of all. He insisted that the clergy receive training in theology.
178 03/19/1227 - 08/22/1241 Gregory IX

Papa Gregorius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Ugolino dei Conti di Segni Anagni, Latium, Italy 14 years He canonized Saint Elizabeth,  Anthony of Padua, and also Francis of Assisi, of who had been a personal friend.
179 10/25/1241- 11/10/1241 Celestine IV

Papa Coelestinus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Goffredo Castiglioni Milan, Italy 17 days He was Pope for  seventeen days. His only notable Papal act was the excommunication of Matteo Orsini. He died, before consecration.
180 06/25/1243 - 12/07/1254 Innocent IV

Papa Innocentius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Sinibaldo Fieschi Genoa, Italy 11 years He was the author of a commentary on the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX. He was severely ill with pleurisy when he died.
181 12/12/1254 - 05/25/1261 Alexander IV

Papa Alexander Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne Anagni, Italy 7 years He canonized Clare or Assisi, the woman who founded the Poor Clares. He also launched the Inquisition in France.
182 08/29/1261 - 10/02/1264 Urban IV

Papa Urbanus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Jacques Pantaléon Troyes, France 3 years He was the son of a shoemaker of Troyes. In 1264 he instituted the festival of Corpus Christi.
183 02/05/1265 - 11/29/1268 Clement IV

Papa Clemens Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Gui Faucoi le Gros (angl: Guy Foulques the Fat) Saint-Gilles, France 3 years Upon the death of his wife, he followed his father's example and gave up secular concerns for the Church.
  11/29/1268 - 09/01/1271 Interregnum


        Almost 3 years without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184 11/29/1268 - 09/01/1271 Blessed Gregory X

Papa Gregorius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Tebaldo Visconti Piacenza, Italy

4 years He was elected by the Papal election with the longest election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church.
185 01/21/1276 - 06/22/1276 Blessed Innocent V

Papa Innocentius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Pierre de Tarentaise Savoy, France 6 months He acquired great fame as a preacher. He was the first member of the Dominican Order order to become Pope. 
186 07/11/1276 - 08/18/1276 Adrian V

Papa Hadrianus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Ottobuono Fieschi Genoa, Italy 1 month He was never ordained Bishop, so he never truly became the Pope, but since he was elected he is in the Papal succession.
187 09/08/1276 - 05/20/1277 John XXI

Papa Ioannes Vicesimus Primus, Episcopus Romanus Pedro Hispano Lisbon, Portugal 8 months He was the only Portuguese Pope and first medical doctor. Note that the previous Pope named John was  John XIX  and there is no John XX. 
188 11/25/1277 - 08/22/1280 Nicholas III

Papa Nicolaus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Rome 2 years A born politician, he greatly strengthened the Papal position. He repaired the Lateran Palace and Vatican at enormous cost.
189 02/22/1281 - 03/28/1285 Martin IV

Papa Martinus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Simon de Brion; Simon de Brie Touraine, France 4 years He was exiled and suffered through imprisonment. He was the last Pope to be declared a martyr.
190 04/02/1285 - 04/03/1287 Honorius IV

Papa Honorius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Giacomo Savelli Rome 2 years He was already in old age and ill when elected. When saying Mass he would sit on a stool and at the Elevation his hands had to be raised for him.
191 02/22/1288 - 04/04/1292 Nicholas IV, O.F.M.

Papa Nicolaus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Girolamo Masci Ascoli, Italy 4 years He was the first Franciscan Pope. He was pious and learned, and contributed to the artistic beauty of Rome.
  04/04/1292 - 07/05/1294 Interregnum


          Almost 2 years without a valid Pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the Pope.
192 07/05/1294 - 12/13/1294 Saint Celestine V

Papa Coelestinus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro da Morrone Moline, Italy 5 months He was the only Pope to abdicate. He was thrown in prison and died 10 months later. Many scholars say he was murdered.
193 12/24/1294 - 10/11/1303 Boniface VIII

Papa Bonifacius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Benedetto Caetani Anagni, Italy 8 years He was buried in a tomb that he designed. They say when the tomb cracked open 3 centuries after his death his body was revealed to be incorrupt.
14th Century
194 10/22/1303 - 07/07/1304 Blessed Benedict XI

Papa Benedictus Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Niccolò Boccasini Treviso, Italy 9 months He died suddenly and many suspected that the Holy Pope had been killed by poisoned figs.
195 06/05/1305 - 04/20/1314 Clement V

Papa Clemens Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Bertrand de Got Bordeaux, France 8 years He was the first Pope who assumed the Papal Tiara. He also founded a number of universities and teaching posts.
  04/20/1314 - 08/07/1316 Interregnum


        Over 2 years without a valid Pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196 08/07/1316 - 12/04/1334 John XXII

Papa Ioannes Vicesimus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse Cahors, France 18 years He did much efficient reorganizing by appointing Bishops and helping church finances through Papal taxes.
197 12/20/1334 - 04/25/1342 Benedict XII, O.Cist.

Papa Benedictus Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Jacques Fournier Saverdun, France 7 years He was a master of the University of Paris and a distinguished theologian.
198 05/07/1342 - 12/06/1352 Clement VI, O.S.B.

Papa Clemens Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Pierre Roger Limoges, France 10 years He was a patron of artists and scholars, and, enlarged the papal palace, and made it a sophisticated center of culture.
199 12/18/1352 - 09/12/1362 Innocent VI

Papa Innocentius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Étienne Aubert; Stephen Aubert Beyssac, France 9 years He retains a high reputation for justice and mercy. He instituted in 1354 the festival of the Holy Lance.
200 09/28/1362 - 12/19/1370 Blessed Urban V

Papa Urbanus Quintus, Episcopus Guillaume Grimoard; Guillaume de Grimoard Languedoc, France 8 years He studied at Montpellier and Toulouse and became a monk. He was known  for his holiness and love of learning.
201 12/30/1370 - 03/26/1378 Gregory XI

Papa Gregorius Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Pierre Roger de Beaufort Limoges, France 7 years He was the last Pope of French nationality. He was learned and pious. The Great Schism began after his death.
202 04/08/1378 - 10/15/1389 Urban VI

Papa Urbanus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Bartolomeo Prignano Naples, Italy 11 years His election was the immediate cause of the Great Schism.
203 11/02/1389 - 10/01/1404 Boniface IX

Papa Bonifacius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Italy 14 years His firm character and mild manner did much to restore respect for the Papacy.
15th Century
204 10/17/1404 - 11/06/1406 Innocent VII

Papa Innocentius Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Cosimo Gentile Migliorati Abruzzi, Italy 2 years He was a lover of peace and honesty and had a knowledge of civil and canon law.
205 11/30/1406 - 07/04/1415 Gregory XII

Papa Gregorius Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Angelo Correr Venice, Italy 8 years He changed the European calendar. Now most of the world operates on the Gregorian calendar.
  07/04/1415 - 11/11/1417 Interregnum


          Two years without a valid Pope elected. Alexander V and John XXIII were antipopes during this period.
206 11/11/1417 - 02/20/1431 Martin V

Papa Martinus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Oddone Colonna Rome 13 years He was widely esteemed for moderation, learning, uprightness, and business ability.
207 03/03/1431 - 02/23/1447 Eugene IV, O.S.A.

Papa Eugenius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Gabriele Condulmer Venice, Italy 15 years He showed piety and charity. He ordered the bronze gates at the entrance to St. Peter's. He commissioned Fra Angelico to decorate a new chapel in the Vatican.
208 03/06/1447 - 03/24/1455 Nicholas V

Papa Nicolaus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Tommaso Parentucelli Sarzana, Liguria, Italy 8 years His Pontificate was important in the history of the world. But would be forever dulled by the fall of Constantinople
209 04/08/1455 - 08/06/1458 Callixtus III

Papa Callistus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Alfonso de Borgia Xàtiva, València, Spain 3 years He was elected  after the fall of Constantinople, and he promptly proclaimed a crusade against the Turks.
210 08/19/1458 - 08/15/1464 Pius II

Papa Pius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Enea Silvio Piccolomini Siena, Italy 5 years He was a versatile and voluminous author. He had a sincere, loving nature. His leading trait was his character.
211 08/30/1464 - 07/26/1471 Paul II

Papa Paulus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Barbo Venice, Italy 6 years He approved the introduction of printing into the Papal State and  books and other documents became far more numerous, and less expensive.
212 08/09/1471 - 08/12/1484 Sixtus IV, O.F.M.

Papa Xystus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Francesco della Rovere Savona, Italy 10 years He donated several Roman sculptures that founded a Papal collection of art   of the Capitoline Museums. He created the Sistine Chapel.
213 08/29/1484 - 07/25/1492 Innocent VIII

Papa Innocentius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Cybo Genoa, Italy 7 years An important event of his Pontificate was the fall of Granada in January 1492, which was celebrated in the Vatican .
214 08/11/1492 - 08/18/1503 Alexander V

Papa Alexander Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Rodrigo de Lanzòl-Borgia Xàtiva, València, Spain 11 years In his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Donato Bramante. Raphael, Michelangelo and Pinturicchio.
16th Century
215 09/22/1503 - 10/18/1503 Pius III

Papa Pius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini Siena, Tuscany, Italy 27 days He was only sixty-four when elected, but was a sick man. He bravely went through the ceremonies of coronation but died soon after.
216 10/31/1503 - 02/21/1513 Julius II

Papa Iulius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Giuliano della Rovere Albisola, Savona, Italy 9 years He is known  more for his patronage of the arts, including commissioning Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
217 03/09/1513 - 12/01/1521 Leo X

Papa Leo Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Florence, Italy 8 years He was known  for the sale of indulgences to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's theses.
218 01/09/1522 - 09/14/1523 Adrian VI

Papa Hadrianus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (presently The Netherlands) 9 months He would be the last non-Italian to serve as Pope until John Paul II  He died too soon to succeed as a peacemaker.
219 11/26/1523 - 09/25/1534 Clement VII

Papa Clemens Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici Florence, Italy 11 years He was the Pope whose refusal to give England's King Henry VIII a divorce touched off the English Reformation.
220 10/13/1534 - 11/10/1549 Paul III

Papa Paulus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Alessandro Farnese Canino, Viterbo, Italy 15 years His interest in art was very great and he founded the Farnese Palace, and had Michelangelo continue the decoration of the Sistine Chapel.
221 02/07/1550 - 03/29/1555 Julius III

Papa Iulius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte Rome 5 years He supported Michelangelo as architect of St. Peter's and discovered the genius of Palestrina.
222 04/09/1555 - 04/30/1555 Marcellus II

Papa Marcellus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Marcello Cervini Montefano, Macerata, Italy 21 days He died before he could start a plan to reform the church, and to work against  nepotism and excessive lifestyles of  church officials.
223 05/23/1555 - 08/18/1559 Paul IV

Papa Paulus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Pietro Carafa Capriglia, Campania, Italy 4 years He was ultimately so unpopular that, after he died, a mob stormed the Inquisition and tore down his statue.
224 12/26/1559 - 12/09/1565 Pius IV

Papa Pius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Italy 6 years He is known for having brought to a glorious termination the Council of Trent and for having reformed all the Roman tribunals.
225 01/07/1566 - 05/01/1572 Saint
Pius V

Papa Pius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Michele Ghislieri Bosco, Alessandria, Italy 6 years As soon as he became Pope he applied himself to the work of reform. Decrees and ordinances were issued  rapidity.
226 05/13/1572 - 04/10/1585 Gregory XIII

Papa Gregorius Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Ugo Boncompagni Bologna, Italy 12 years He reformed the calendar, built  the splendid Gregorian Chapel in St. Peter's, the fountains of the Piazza Navona, the Quirinal Palace and more.
227 04/24/1585 - 08/27/1590 Sixtus V, O.F.M. Conv.

Papa Xystus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Felice Peretti Grottammare, Marche, Italy 5 years He refurbished  churches in Rome, rebuilt the Lateran palace, finished the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, and he erected buildings and monuments.
228 09/15/1590 - 09/27/1590 Urban VII

Papa Urbanus Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Castagna Rome 12 days He has the distinction of being one of the shortest-lived popes ever. He died just 12 days after his election  of malaria before his coronation.
229 12/05/1590 - 10/15/1591 Gregory XIV

Papa Gregorius Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Niccolò Sfondrati Cremona, Lombardy, Italy 11 months He was weak and an invalid even from the start. He eventually died due to a large gallstone.
230 10/29/1591 - 12/30/1591 Innocent IX

Papa Innocentius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti Bologna, Italy 2 months He helped feed the poor in Rome, supported efforts to put down highway bandits, and left a number of unpublished writings.
231 01/30/1592 - 03/03/1605 Clement VIII

Papa Clemens Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Ippolito Aldobrandini Fano, Marche, Italy 13 years The most important political event during his Papacy was his reconciliation with Henry IV of France.
17th Century
232 04/01/1605 - 04/27/1605 Leo XI

Papa Leo Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici Florence, Italy 26 days King Henry IV of France is said to have spent 300,000 écus in the promotion of Alessandro as Pope but he died after 26 days.
233 05/16/1605 - 01/28/1621 Paul V

Papa Paulus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Camillo Borghese Rome 15 years He had Carlo Maderna finalize the construction of the Vatican. He ordered new institutes for education and charity.
234 02/09/1621 - 07/08/1623 Gregory XV

Papa Gregorius Quintus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Alessandro Ludovisi Bologna, Italy 2 years He founded the Congregation of the Propaganda and canonized St. Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri and Theresa de Jesus.
235 08/06/1623 - 07/29/1644 Urban VIII

Papa Urbanus Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Maffeo Barberini Florence, Italy 20 years He promoted missionary work and founded a college for their training. He prohibited slavery.
236 09/15/1644 - 01/07/1655 Innocent X

Papa Innocentius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Pamphilj Rome 10 years He improved Papal relations with the Venetians and expanded the authority of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith.
237 04/07/1655 - 05/22/1667 Alexander VII

Papa Alexander Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Fabio Chigi Siena, Tuscany, Italy 12 years He encouraged architecture, and in particular constructed the beautiful colonnade in the Piazza of St. Peter's.
238 06/20/1667 - 12/09/1669 Clement IX

Papa Clemens Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy 2 years He was free from nepotism, was devoted to his flock and personally heard confessions in St. Peter's. He  helped the Venetians.
239 04/29/1670 - 07/22/1676 Clement X

Papa Clemens Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Emilio Altieri Rome 6 years He was 80 years old when chosen, so his cardinal nephew took over the affairs. But the nephew was a corrupt politician.
240 09/21/1676 - 08/11/1689 Blessed Innocent XI

Papa Innocentius Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Benedetto Odescalchi Como, Lombardy, Italy 12 years The case for his canonization was introduced in 1714 but the influence of France forced it to be suspended. In 1939 it was reintroduced.
241 10/06/1689 -  02/01/1691 Alexander VIII

Papa Alexander Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Vito Ottoboni Padova, Veneto, Italy 1 years He bought the books and manuscripts of Queen Christian of Sweden for the Vatican library.
242 07/12/1691 - 09/27/1700 Innocent XII

Papa Innocentius Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Antonio Pignatelli Como, Lombardy, Italy 9 years Caring and just, and one of the best Popes, he struck at the root of nepotism in a bull of 1692 ordaining that no Pope should grant estates, offices or revenues to any relative.
243 11/23/1700 - 03/19/1721 Clement XI

Papa Clemens Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Francesco Albani Urbino, Marche, Italy 20 years He was a polished writer, and a generous patron of art and letter writing.
18th Century
244 05/08/1721 - 03/07/1724 Innocent XIII

Papa Innocentius Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Michelangelo de ’Conti; Michael Angelo Conti Poli, Lazio, Italy 3 years His Pontificate was prosperous, but comparatively uneventful.
245 05/29/1724 - 02/21/1730 Benedict XIII, O.P.

Papa Benedictus Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Pierfrancesco Orsini Gravina, Puglia, Italy 5 years He was a member of the Orsini of Rome, and the third and last member of that family to become Pope.
246 07/12/1730 -  02/06/1740 Clement XII

Papa Clemens Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Lorenzo Corsini Florence, Italy 9 years He was one of the oldest men to be elected Pope. He paved the streets and roads of Rome.
247 08/17/1740 - 05/03/1758 Benedict XIV

Papa Benedictus Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini Bologna, Italy 17 years His Papacy began in a time of great difficulties. He reformed the education of priests, and the calendar of feasts of the Church.
248 07/06/1758 - 02/02/1769 Clement XIII

Papa Clemens Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Carlo della Torre Rezzonico Venice, Veneto, Italy 10 years He was an honest man and of the purest morals, devout, steady, learned, and diligent.
249 05/19/1769 - 09/22/1774 Clement XIV, O.F.M. Conv.

Papa Clemens Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna, Italy 5 years He fell into a languishing sickness, which was attributed to poison.
250 02/15/1775 - 08/29/1799 Pius VI

Papa Pius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi Cesena, Italy 24 years The earlier acts of Pius VI gave fair promise of liberal rule and reform in the corrupt administration of the Papal States.
251 03/14/1800 - 08/20/1823 Pius VII, O.S.B.

Papa Pius Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Barnaba Chiaramonti Cesena, Italy 23 years He was 34 when appointed. He had an unusual coronation, wearing a papier-mâché papal tiara, the original was seized by the French.
19th Century
252 09/28/1823 - 02/10/1829 Leo XII

Papa Leo Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Count Annibale Sermattei della Genga Fabriano, Marche, Italy 5 years His election had been facilitated because he was thought to be at death's door; but he unexpectedly rallied.
253 03/31/1829 - 12/01/1830 Pius VIII

Papa Pius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Cingoli, Marche, Italy 2 years He was in very poor health from his election until his death. Even so there were rumors that he had been poisoned.
254 02/02/1831 - 06/01/1846 Gregory XVI, O.S.B. Cam.

Papa Gregorius Sextus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari Belluno, Veneto, Italy 15 years He was strongly conservative and a traditionalist. He was opposed to basic technological innovations such as gas lighting and railways.
255 06/16/1846 - 02/07/1878 Blessed Pius IX

Papa Pius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti Senigallia, Marche, Italy 31 years He opened First Vatican Council, and lost the Papal States to Italy. He is the longest serving pope in history since Peter.
256 02/20/1878 - 07/20/1903 Leo XIII

Papa Leo Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci Carpineto Romano, Latium, Italy 25 years He is the third-longest reigning pope after Pius IX (reigned for 31 years) and John Paul II.
20th Century
257 08/04/1903 - 08/20/1914 Saint
Pius X

Papa Pius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto Riese, Treviso, Veneto, Italy 11 years He encouraged and expanded reception of Holy Communion. It is said that he is  the most recent Pope to be canonized.
258 09/03/1914 - 01/22/1922 Benedict XV

Papa Benedictus Quintus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giacomo Della Chiesa Genoa, Italy 7 years He is credited for intervening for peace during World War I. He is remembered as a "Prophet of Peace."
259 02/06/1922 - 02/10/1939 Pius XI

Papa Pius Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti Desio, Milan, Italy 17 years He signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, establishing the Vatican City as a sovereign state.
260 03/02/1939 - 10/09/1958

Venerable Pius XII 

Papa Pius Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli Rome 19 years He contributed to the rebuilding of Europe, and fought for peace.  He invoked the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his 1950.
261 10/28/1958 -  06/03/1963 Blessed John XXIII

Papa Ioannes Vicesimus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Italy 4 years He opened the 2nd Vatican Council. He received the Balzan Prize for his engagement for peace. He is known as "Good Pope John".
262 06/21/1963 - 08/06/1978 Servant of God Paul VI

Papa Paulus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini Concesio, Brescia, Italy 15 years He was the last Pope to be crowned with the Papal Tiara. He re-opened the Second Vatican Council. The title of Servant of God is the first of four steps toward  canonization.
263 08/26/1978 - 09/28/1978 Servant of God John Paul I

Papa Ioannes Paulus Primus, Episcopus Romanus Albino Luciani Veneto, Italy 27 days His name is the first double name Pope in the history of the Papacy. He is remembered with affection as "The Smiling Pope." The canonization process has begun & miracles have been attributed to him.
264 10/16/1978 - 04/02/2005 Servant of God John Paul II

Papa Ioannes Paulus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Karol Józef Wojtyła Wadowice, Poland

26 years He was the first Polish, non-Italian Pope in 455 years and the longest serving since Pius IX and 2nd longest pope to date. He is remembered as "Pope of the Youth" and he canonized more saints than all predecessors.
21st Century
265 04/19/2005 - 02/28/2013 Benedict XVI

Papa Benedictus Sextus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Joseph Alois Ratzinger Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany 8 years He is the first German Pope since Adrian VI in 1523. Oldest to become pope since Clement XII in 1730. Resigned in 2013 and is the first Pope to resign since Pope Celestine V in 1294
266 03/13/2013 -

Pope Francis I

Papa Franciscus, Episcopus Romanus  Jorge Mario Bergoglio Buenos Aires Argentine   Pope Francis, was the first pontiff from the Americas and the first from outside Europe since St. Gregory III.  Throughout his life he has been known for his humility and his concern for the poor.

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